The processes used by a dentist in order to shrink the jawbone or make the jawbone thinner by using bone grafts is called bone grafting. Bone grafting is necessary if a person desires to go for dental implants but finds out through CAT scans or dental X-rays that the jawbone does not have the required thickness because of bone losses. Due to the aging process bone loss may be advanced. Bone loss may also result from an accident, periodontal gum disease, missing teeth or prolonged denture wear. The area around the tooth that is lost through accident or injury is predisposed to recede making the jawbone shrink. Natural renewal processes help to maintain the bone density of our teeth.
Healthy tooth tissue and normal bone growth is ensured by these processes. The facial jaw line appears sunken if the replacement of lost tooth has not been done resulting in several tooth missing. A person looks aged due to this appearance and this is definitely unnecessary as well as undesirable. A bone graft consolidated with dental implant may help in preventing this problem. Bone grafting has proven to be grandly successful and is a current innovative strategy. A bone is grafted from an area of the body into the jawbone therefore increasing the depth and width of it. This is the process of dental bone grafting. An option of using a synthetic alternative also remains instead of using bones from other parts of the body.
There are four major types of bone grafting. Alloplastic grafting, xenografts, allografts, or autogenous or auto grafts. The most popular and the most successful of all the grafting techniques is the autogenous grafting process. In the field of bone grafting this process is referred to as the gold standard. In this process a bone is harvested or removed from a chosen donor location – for example the hip. The preferred source is the hip. This area is enriched with marrow and hence implies enhanced supply of bone cells. This harvesting is then followed by the grafting of the bone into the jawbone. The jawbone is regenerated with the aid of the grafted bone.
Allografting is similar to autografting. A human donor provides the bone to be grafted instead of designating a source site from the patient’s body in the allografting procedure. Specialized bone banks serve this purpose similar to blood banks where bone samples have been donated by people. Allografting is an option for people who do not desire to go for autogenous grafting. Human cadavers provide the donor bone via bone banks. The donor bone is thoroughly sterilized and examined before the process of grafting is initiated. The donor is assimilated into a natural jaw bone by the patient’s body.
In the xenografting procedure the source of the donor bone is an animal. This is where the previous two techniques differ from this third one. The preferred source of the donor bone is a bovine or a cow. The safety aspects are the usually the patients worries and patients might also feel slightly uncomfortable about the process but the donor bone undergoes scrupulous examination before being grafted.
In the alloplastic technique the donor bone is a man made graft. This is why this process is different from the other three techniques where the donor bone is from natural sources.