What Causes Tooth Enamel Damage?

How Enamel Protects Your Teeth

Enamel is kind of like an eggshell. It protects the soft part of the tooth inside.

Unlike an egg’s outer layer, it’s tough. It’s the hardest substance in your body. With some luck — and good dental care — it can withstand decades of biting, chewing, and crunching.

What Discolors Teeth?

Enamel may seem white, but it’s clear. Light can shine through it. The layer underneath, dentin, shows through. That’s what makes a tooth look light or dark.

Over time, things like coffee, tea, wine, and cigarettes can make the outer layer of your teeth look dingy yellow or gray.

From Erosion to Cavities

As tough as tooth enamel is, it can be worn down. Acids from foods and bacteria eat away at it, causing erosion and cavities.

In this slide, cavities are forming in the center.

Enamel can also be chipped or cracked. Unlike bone, it can’t grow back on its own

Tooth Decay and Sensitivity

What happens when tooth enamel is damaged? The inner layer gets exposed, and decay can start. Cavities aren’t the only problem.

Teeth with damaged enamel can react to extreme heat or cold. Eating ice cream or sipping hot coffee can be a pain, or at least unpleasant.

How Bacteria Destroy Enamel

After you eat, bacteria in your mouth feast on sugars from sweet foods and starches. This makes acids that can destroy enamel. The green rods in this slide are bacteria that cause mild gum disease, also called gingivitis.

Acids in sodas, juices, and drinks are harmful, too. Some are harsher than battery acid. Over time, they cause erosion. That shrinks the tooth.

Wine Lovers, Beware

Drinking it many times a day — and swishing it in your mouth — puts your enamel in contact with harmful acids.

That’s why it’s better to drink a glass of wine, soda, or sweet tea with a meal instead of sipping it over several hours.

Eating and Digestive Problems

Some health conditions can damage tooth enamel. This slide shows erosion from the eating disorder bulimia, caused when stomach acid enters the mouth because of frequent vomiting.

Acid reflux, stomach problems, and other eating disorders can have this effect.

The Problem With Dry Mouth

Saliva takes care of acids in your mouth that erode your teeth. Its presence helps preserve tooth enamel.


If you have a dry mouth caused by a drug side effect or health condition, the acids stick around longer. That can cause more damage.

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