Bone healing is a process to join the broken or fractured bones. The process restores tissues and bones back to their original mechanical and physical properties. Many systemic factors involved in this process and can be distinguished into three overlapping stages.
1. Inflammatory stage: a hematoma grows in fracture site within few hours or days of damage in this stage. Fibroblasts and inflammatory cells including macrophages, lymphocytes, and monocytes infiltrate the damaged bone with prostaglandin mediation. Granulation tissues are formatted in this process along the vascular tissues growth due to the relocation of mesenchymal cells. The exposed muscles and cancellous bones provide oxygen and primary nutrient in this early stage. The cytotoxic or anti-inflammatory medications at this stage can damage this process and bone healing.
2. Repair stage: a storma lay down by the fibroblasts to support the growth of vascular in this stage. The existence of nicotine can inhibits the capillary growth at this stage. During the growth of the vascular, a soft callus formed around the fractured site due to the collagen matrix and osteoid growth and their subsequently mineralized. This callus is not enough strong in initial 4-6 weeks of healing process, so they need adequate protection, which can be provided by the internal fixation or bracing as required. Eventually, callus solidifies and forms a woven bone bridge between the two broken or fractured fragments. However, if mobilization is continued, than callus may not ossified properly and stable union of fibrous may not developed as a result.
3. Remodeling stage: this is the last stage of bone healing where the fractured bone is reinstate to its inventive structure, mechanical shape, and strength. Remodeling of fractured bone is a slow process and takes months or years to complete according to their damage, it also needs mechanical stress to facilitate the healing process. Adequate strength can be achieved within 3-8 months.
In healing bones most critical tenure is the initial two weeks when revascularization and inflammation crop up. It is the requirement of the remodeling and incorporation of fractured bone healing that the mesenchymal cells get vascular access to graft for differentiating them into osteoclast and osteoblasts. Several factors are inhibiting in the bone healing process, like smoking, diabetes, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Many local mechanical factors also strongly infect the bone grafts during remodeling process. The mechanical requirement of bone graft can change the geometry, density, thickness of bone and trabecullar orientation of fractured object.
Lots of food supplements required to speedy healing, but differ in every stage of healing. At the same time, several food restrictions needed during each healing process. Calcium is a key supplement in healing, but you have to be careful to use it in every stage. You have to adjust the intake of calcium according to the ability to absorb it. Vitamin C is another great supplement for fast healing process which makes collagen to help the body for strong bones. Vitamin K or Menadione is also helpful in the remodeling process to clotting the fractured bones. However, Aspirin, smoking, salt, caffeine, alcohol, sugar, and red meats are harmful during the bone healing process, you can get a better and speedy healing with avoiding these objects.