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The Pathologist’s Report of Breast Cancer

By this time you’ve received a diagnosis based about the biopsy findings. You know whether or not you’ve tumor. Your diagnosis was made by the pathologist-the only member of your diagnostic team whom you most likely won’t meet, include information on regardless of whether or not cells are present, and the character from the cells which are observed under the microscope. A surgical pathology report might be within the form of the template or freely dictated, but either way it ought to contain certain information. Don’t just study the summary of the findings on the end from the report.

Study and understand the body from the record. Look on the sample surgical pathology record at the end of this chapter. Note the separation of gross findings from microscopic findings. Although they’re different, both are important towards the final diagnosis. The “gross pathology” may be dictated by a different pathologist from the one who signs the report, because the gross pathology is done the day the specimen arrives in the pathology laboratory; the tissue isn’t study until it has been examined under the microscope by the pathologist who dictates the microscopic findings. The final surgical pathology report may not be typed and signed until days later.

The essential information you should glean from the gross pathology is the size, place, and character from the specimen muscle as a entire, and the size, place, and character from the tumor (if there is any) that may be contained inside it. Don’t confuse the two. The bigger dimensions of the specimen as a entire aren’t the dimensions from the cancer. The size from the cancer has major implications for the “stage” from the tumor. If tumor is diagnosed within the specimen, the additional description of the muscle, as set forth in the gross pathology, becomes essential, such as the place of the cancer within the specimen as aentire. For example, a pathologist often can make the diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer when he or she sees, below the microscope, cancer cells in the lymphatic ducts of the skin-the “dermal lymphatics.”

When the tumor is located on the edge from the specimen and is cut through, a reexcision will be essential. The gross pathology has told the whole story. The microscopic pathology to come will simply confirm that the margin is good. The color and also the consistency of the tumor inside the specimen are also relevant, in that they might characterize the tumor. After dictating his or her findings, the pathologist who carries out the gross pathology will cut some of the tissue into small pieces and put them into “cassettes,” porous holders of the fragments. The cassettes are submerged in a fluid that preserves the tissue.

Please note that the pathologist cannot examine every cell in a core needle specimen, or within the bigger specimen of an open biopsy. He or she might “bread loaf” the tissue by cutting it into slices like a loaf of bread and putting representative sections into cassettes. The remainder of the specimen is retained in jars containing preserving liquid, so that if there are any questions regarding the pathology, additional muscle can be examined. Legally, the pathology department should keep the preserved tissue for a specified period; nothing should be thrown away at the time of the procedure. Right after an appropriate time, laboratory technicians prepare the preserved muscle further for the pathologist who will carry out the microscopic examination.

They place very thin sections from the tissue on glass microscope slides, stain them appropriately, and cover them. The pathologist reads the slides below the microscope and dictates the “microscopic examination” portion from the record. The concluding summary gives the gist of the gross and microscopic findings. The most common breast area cancer is called adenocarcinoma. The term is truly a composite: “adeno” describes the tissue of origin of the cancer; “carcinoma” is really a fancy term for cancer. Thus, an adenocarcinoma is a tumor of glandular origin. And a breast area adenocarcinoma is really a breast area cancer of glandular origin.

The specific muscle where the breast area cancer has originated is either within the duct system from the breast (when it’s recognized as ductal adenocarcinoma or, a lot more commonly, ductal carcinoma) or in the lobules (the part of the breast system exactly where the milk is produced). Lobular carcinomas, when invasive, possess a life expectancy similar to that of invasive ductal carcinomas. Although they might have different characteristics, the two are subjected towards the same treatment. (You should be aware that invasive lobular carcinomas frequently are not visualized on screening mammograms simply because, it’s believed, their outside edges have more tendrils and aren’t distinct.)

Both ductal and lobular carcinomas are treated differently when they’re noninvasive than when they’re invasive. A non invasive ductal carcinoma (otherwise known being a DCIS, an acronym for ductal carcinoma in situ) includes a different treatment path from that of the lobular carcinoma in situ, LCIS. The record dictated from the pathologist is typed and submitted to him or her for approval and signature. Finally, it is conveyed to you. You are able to see why it takes several days to issue the pathology record, and a number of a lot more days until you get the results. Your physician may wish to shorten the time involved by phoning the pathologist and obtaining an oral record.

But should you then get the report from your physician, who did not see the muscle below the microscope, it is certainly feasible for error to creep into the transmission. Whenever you receive the formal record, study all of it, not just the summary. If you do not understand the details, ask your doctor to explain them. Pathologists ought to know all concerning the tissue they’re handling, such as the “natural history” (untreated history) from the tumor. The report will contain the answers to three big questions: Do you have cancer? If so, what kind is it? And particularly, is it invasive or noninvasive? The pathologist’s answers will have profound consequences for your remedy. If the margin is positive, the pathologist should be able to say how good it’s.

As you can see from Figure 6, the margin could be “grossly” positive (many, many cancer cells are there) or “diffusely” good (only a relatively few cells can be observed). Obviously, when the yolk is off center, at the edge from the white of the egg, and is cut via, the margin will be called grossly positive. Actually, if the tumor has been cut through, a big number of cancer cells will remain in the tumor bed (the remaining muscle in you). Even though it is essential for the team to know when the margin is grossly or diffusely good, the bottom line for you is that if the margin is known as positive, additional surgery-a reexcision of the margin of the tumor bed-must be considered. If the pathologist’s report right after your biopsy describes cells in the lymphatics of the skin, you possess a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer. If that specialized cancer is treated like plain old breast area cancer (POBC), the outcome could be disastrous.

Any suspicion of inflammatory breast area tumor must be followed up, with a second opinion from an additional pathologist or oncologist if necessary. Unlike the treatment for POBC (surgical treatment, chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, and radiation), the sequence of treatment for inflammatory breast cancer is chemotherapy or hormonal therapy first, then surgery, and then radiation. If inflammatory breast tumor is treated having a mastectomy on the outset, the cancer cells within the dermal lymphatics are cut through on the time from the initial surgery and can spread all over the chest wall. Soon thereafter, tumor nodules can appear on the chest wall en curasse-covering the entire chest wall. This progression spells disaster for the patient.

If chemotherapy or hormonal therapy can render the dermal lymphatics free of tumor, you will find two outcomes. First, the peau d’orange appearance from the breast area skin can disappear and, second, surgical treatment could be carried out safely. On the same time, the systemic treatment affects the big central mass of tumor and makes it much smaller, and therefore surgically amenable to remedy. The pathologist has still another role: to give the tumor a pathologic stage. This last and crucial staging includes a substantial bearing on your future. The pathologist in no way creates formal treatment recommendations, because the pathologist isn’t a treating doctor.

The treatment team makes treatment recommendations. Only the patient makes remedy decisions. The pathologist may possess a strong opinion about what the treatment ought to be, but it isn’t stated in the pathology report or in any formal setting in which the pathologist participates (for example, at a tumor board-about which you will hear a lot more in a moment). If the disease or tumor diagnosed is rare, the pathologist might comment appropriately within the pathology record. Patients are usually pleased to have their case presented to a tumor board. They imagine that physicians with different specialties will very carefully evaluate their case. The operative word is very carefully. Optimally, the slides should be presented by the pathologist assigned to the tumor board as well as by the presenting doctor. Presumably the pathologist has had time to review the slides beforehand.

Similarly, the x-rays should be evaluated prior towards the tumor board meeting and presented from the assigned radiologist. If the slides and x-rays are carefully reviewed and presented, the role from the tumor board can be extremely meaningful. Regularly, however, the films or slides aren’t present. Or the pathologist or radiologist is absent. Or the specialists have not had enough time to review the slides or films. Frequently the attending doctor is seeing the slides for the first time. In such hit-or-miss circumstances, the board’s recommendations might not be really thoughtful or they may be biased in favor from the presenting doctor.

Even if the tumor board is nicely organized and nicely prepared, the situation frequently is presented rather quickly. The pathologist, the radiologist, and also the physicians on the board have little opportunity to believe about the situation, the patient isn’t seen, and the recommendations might be tainted from the presentation. There is no substitute for seeing and examining the patient and taking sufficient time to believe about the situation right after reviewing all the records, films, and slides. Tumor board recommendations are just that-recommendations. They should never be accepted as definitive treatment decisions. Your remedy team is responsible for explaining your treatment choices to you, and only you are able to decide what remedy you’ll have.



Source by Franco Zinzi

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Care Of Your Pets When Selling Your Home

Often when people put their homes on the Real Estate market for sale they tend to forget the impact that showings of their house will have on their animal family members. Obviously it is up to their listing agent to help them over this hurdle, however, sometimes we fall short of our duty to the family pets. As Real Estate agents we have to think both of the impact that people coming into our listings will have on doggy, kitty, bunny, or whatever, and the impact that doggy, kitty, bunny, or whatever, will have on the prospective buyer.

Often the vendor will have the welfare of their animal or animals at heart and make their own arrangements. They will put a 24-hour notice on any showings to afford them the time they need to make suitable arrangements for their pet. This time restriction on the showing of their house is not always in their best interest as showings are often lost because the buying agent cannot get their clients in to see the property at the client’s convenience. Sometimes the vendor will instruct their agent to allow no showings during the day while they are at work, thus, once again valuable showing time becomes limited. Often the presence of the pet or pets is not a problem in that the animal is confined to a cage whenever the owner is out of the house, anyway. This usually works unless the animal is a doggy that is prone to barking. Often the continuous barking of a dog in a rather confined area will drive prospective buyers crazy and cause them to vacate the property as soon as possible resulting possibly in a lost sale.

As a Real Estate agent I do not have the answer to pet quandaries. As an agent I have to be mindful all of the time during a showing to not let kitty out and to try to prevent a possible doggy attack. I have found over the years that quite often even the most mild-mannered canine will have a personality change with strangers invading his or her domain. Being well aware of dog and cat temperaments from having these pets most of my life sometimes I can see looks of bewilderment in their eyes, as well as, fear, when I arrive on the scene as a stranger and with strangers in tow to what they must think is a hostile take-over of their private property.

Thinking as a seller and having had pets personally for many years I would be afraid that my best friend would get out during a showing and would not be there when I arrived home. This would prompt me to make sure to put some form of safety measure for my pet into place before putting my house on the market. As a Real Estate agent it is my duty to make my vendor aware of possible problems with pets roaming free during a showing and help them reach reasonable solutions to possible pet problems before they occur so that the selling of their property will go as painlessly and effortlessly as possible.



Source by Barb Wilson-Meyers

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Bone Grafts in Dental Implants

Bone grafting will be needed when patients have gone a long time without teeth and the bone has eroded significantly. This erosion happens over time as nature finding no use for the jawbone gradually starts resorption of the bone and gum causing them to shrink.

Advanced bone grafting allows the bone to be rebuilt. After the jawbone has been rebuilt through grafting implants can be placed.

Grafts are mainly of 4 types:

Autografts: Grafts for this technique are taken from person’s own body. It is harvested from either the hip or the mouth of the patient and grafted on to the site of the implant or where the bone depth and width is very low. As the bone taken is the patient’s own the compatibility is high and risk of rejection is low. Best results with the greatest bone regeneration occurs through this method.

Allografts: If for some reason you are suitable candidate for Autografts then Allografts are done. In this technique bone is harvested from other human donors and grafted into your mouth. For this a lots of tests are run to match for compatibility and also, the donor does not have any transmittable diseases. *

Xenografts: In this technique bone is harvested from animals. The animal bone goes through several processes to make it compatible for humans and grafted onto the implant site. Over time your body will replace this with natural bone.

Alloplastic grafts: These are man-made bone. Inert and synthetic materials are used to create artificial bone. This bone over time becomes the framework for natural bone to build over. Sometimes the artificial absorb-able bone is places which over time gets absorbed and body’s own natural bone replaces it.

These bone grafting techniques are gifts of modern science to man as its allows for them to regain many of the bodies lost functions. Using these grafting techniques dental implants are placed in patients of any age group and they enjoy a better quality of life as a result.



Source by Vanessa Jones

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Understanding Dental Implant Bone Grafting

You may have decided that you’d like to replace your missing teeth with dental implants instead of dentures, but aren’t sure what is involved. The short answer to that is that it will depend on the current health of the bone into which the implants will be inserted.

Unless your jawbone is healthy, and has not suffered erosion from infection, gum disease, or previous tooth extraction, you will need to have it built up so that it can hold your implants securely. Dental implant bone grafting is a lengthy process, but can usually be done in your dentist’s office.

Your dentist will use either “autogenous” bone, taken from your own body, or a synthetic or artificial bone substitute. Cow bone is also used frequently for dental implant bone grafting. The addition of this bone will stimulate your body to build new bone around it, but with some synthetic materials the body does not respond by producing new bone, and the synthetic material does the job of securing the dental implant.

Methods Of Dental Implant Bone Grafting

There are several methods of dental implant bone grafting; block bone grafting entails removing bone from another part of the patient’s body. Autogenous bone for a dental implant bone grafting procedure is usually harvested from a patient’s hip or chin, implanted in t he area where the tooth is being replaced, and allowed to heal and grow new bone for at least three, and as long as six months. Any bone taken from areas outside the patient’s mouth will have to be removed in a hospital by an orthopedic surgeon, and transferred to the dentist.

Allograft bone used in dental implant bone grafting is taken from cadavers and under the very close supervision of bone banks. This type of bone harvesting has been going on for years and has supplied bone for thousands of medical and dental procedures with no instances of transmitted disease.

Animal bone used in dental implant bone grafting is known as xenograft, which is the term used for any trans-species transplanting. Both allograft and xenograft dental implant bone are foreign substances to a patient’s body and, very infrequently will trigger a rejection.

Regardless of the source of the dental implant bone graft, the object is to stimulate the body’s bone production in the implant area. One way of making sure the bone growth occurs as quickly as possible for the dentist to insert a “barrier membrane” around the newly grafted dental implant bone. This will keep the body’s more rapidly growing tissues which surround the graft from filling in the areas in which new bone is meant to grow.

Performing a dental implant bone graft with bone expansion requires the dentist to use bone expansion tools to separate sections of the jaw bone and insert the bone implant between them; if the bone is already strong enough to secure it, the dentist may place the implant in the opening instead.

When Bone Grafting Is Not Appropriate

If dental implant bone grafts, bone growth, or bone expansion will not provide sufficient support for a dental implant, the patient may have to have a mold taken of his ore her jawbone and a plate inserted to hole the implants.

If you have plenty of bone tissue and the gums and teeth surrounding the area where you want a dental implant are healthy, then you may not have to concern yourself with dental implant bone grafts. But be prepared for an extended period of procedures and healing, and accept that having dental implants is the most expensive way you will find of replacing your teeth.



Source by Wade Robins

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Oral And Maxillofacial Surgery Procedures

Oral surgery is a well known specialty in dentistry which includes the diagnosis, surgical and relevant treatment of diseases, defects and injuries involving both the functional and esthetic aspects of the soft and hard tissues of the teeth, gums, neck, jaws and head. Oral and maxillofacial surgery also includes dental implants, wisdom teeth removal, oral pathology, bone grafts, TMJ disorder, anesthesia, apicoectomy, corrective jaw surgery, facial trauma along may other procedures. Have a glance on various procedures that are mentioned below:

Dental Implants: It has become one of the most common procedures to replace missing teeth or provide stability to an existing or a new denture. These procedures are performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon. There are various techniques which are used to perform such procedures. These techniques may vary, depend on surgeons or dentists.

Corrective Jaw Surgery: It is also known as orthognathic surgery which is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. There are various reasons for this surgery which are as follows

Incorrect or malocclusion bite

Un-Proportioned facial appearance and incorrect jaw position

Temporomandibular Joint Pain (TMJ) and dysfunction caused by deformation or trauma.

Difficulties in chewing, eating, opening & closing the mouth.

Minor or major trauma

Grinding or clinching of the teeth that causes excessive tooth wear

Tooth Extractions: It’s also known as one of the most recognized oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures. Following reasons may be responsible for this:

Primary teeth that have failed to fall out, preventing the eruption of permanent teeth.

Partially or impacted erupted wisdom teeth

Teeth beyond repair either from root fracture, trauma or tooth decay.

Orthodontic treatment plan may require removal of some teeth to achieve the best result.

There are various other procedures are associated with oral and maxillofacial surgery. If you have any kinds of problem in your teeth, you must consult to a reputed dentist who has been achieved great feat for providing various kinds of dental treatments as per patients’ specific needs and requirements. In this way, you may become healthy.

If you have no any idea about reputed dentists, go through online resources. There may be many reputed websites which provide detailed information about reputed dentists. You should also make sure that they follow the systematic surgical procedures that are ideal for health perspectives. If you want to know detailed information about the procedures, online resources may be helpful for you. So, you should get the detailed information on online resources which may be helpful for your dental treatments.



Source by James C William

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Dental Implants – Time Taken To Complete Treatment Process

Dental implants treatment process can vary depending on a number of factors. In this article you will learn about the different stages and the number of times you need to visit the dentist during the various stages of your dental implant treatment process in brief.

  1. In the first few visits – General assessment and treatment planning
  2. In next 2-3 visits – Implant placement followed healing period (6 weeks to 6 months). Stitches are removed around 7-10 days after the implant placement.
  3. Several Visits – Healing process is checked, temporary dentures fixed during this period. After healing is complete, they are uncovered and made ready to connect to replacement tooth.
  4. One or Two Visits – Temporary teeth might be fitted to allow for better control over loading and aesthetics.
  5. Final Few Visits – Final teeth are fitted on to the implants after carefully measuring size, shape and color of your other teeth. A few sittings may be needed to adjust so they do not interfere with teeth nearby.
  6. Every Few Months – Regular visits to asses implant health and cleanings.

Bone Grafting Will Increase The Length of Treatment

Yes, bone grafting will considerably increase the length of treatment time. If you are short of jawbone then this is an essential step the will greatly improve the success of your implants. Bone grafting is a complex procedure that requires a lot of skill in execution. Implants are a lot less complex to perform than bone grafts.

In some cases the bone grafting and implant placement are done at the same time which considerably reduces the length of your treatment process but most dentists prefer to do it in two steps.

This can take several visits based on how many grafts you need, finding a graft donor if you can not donate to yourself and so on.

Though getting dental implants can be a time and effort consuming process the returns are worth it. The confidence and positive self-image you gain because of your dental implants will help you enjoy a normal life unhindered by restrictions on food, lifestyle or your interactions with other people.



Source by Vanessa Jones

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Cosmetic Dental Surgery – The Key to Perfect Teeth

Have you ever noticed the way celebrities and supermodels have perfect teeth? Do you think they have these great genes and were born that way?

I can assuredly tell you they were not! Their god or goddess like teeth are a result of thousands of dollars spent at a cosmetic dental surgeon.

The focus of your average dentist is making sure the functionality of your teeth and the surrounding area around them is good. They evaluate, diagnose, and prevent disorders and diseases of your gum and oral cavities.

A cosmetic dental surgeon focuses more on the aesthetic side of your teeth. Their aim is to make your smile look as appealing and attractive as humanly possible.

How do they accomplish this? The main methods used include: teeth whitening, enamel shaping, veneers, and gum lifts.

Whitening is one of the most popular and least expensive methods applied by these specialized doctors. Its basically applying a special type of bleach onto your teeth which whitens them. Over time drinking soda, coffee, and certain types of food can stain your teeth and this procedure makes them bright again. While this process will not help the shape of your dentures it will help their color.

Enamel shaping is a procedure most commonly used when someone has a chip in their teeth. It involves removing a small portion of the outer surface of the teeth to create a nice smooth appearance. Its painless and makes the bottom portion of your dentures look symmetrical.

Gum lifts are for people who unfortunately have really gummy teeth. Its highly unattractive and a major hindrance to a great smile. In this procedure the cosmetic surgeon will raise and surgically contour the gum tissue giving it a more balance appearance.

Veneers are thin porcelain laminates that actually go over your teeth. This is probably one of the best ways to get perfect teeth without getting braces. Veneers are placed on top of a tooth, bonded to them, and filled with a material in the back to prevent tooth decay. This is probably the most favorite surgery of most cosmetic dentists because its such and easy procedure and veneers are easy to replace if cracked.

Many of the stars in Hollywood once had ugly teeth. Its amazing when you think about the technology these specialists have at their disposal to correct any sort of defect or misalignment. The skillful hands of a qualified cosmetic dentist can turn the worst looking mouth into something beautiful.



Source by W Barras

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Afraid of Wisdom Teeth Extraction Surgery?

A common question that you’ll run into is, “how do I get over the fear of getting my wisdom teeth pulled?” We often here our Gilbert and Queen Creek patients saying that they’re down-right “scared of wisdom teeth removal” and would rather deal with the annoying pain than have the procedure. The problem to being afraid of your Gilbert oral surgeon and having the procedure done is that most of those fears are irrational, based on horror stories that you’ve heard from grandparents or read on the internet. The best way to combat fear is to become familiar with the unknown, and in this case that unknown is the wisdom teeth extraction procedure.

Wisdom teeth extractions are the most common oral surgery procedure that your Gilbert oral surgeon or dentist can perform. He probably does an average of one per day, and has the procedure down to an art. The actual act of removing wisdom teeth involves some anesthesia, a skilled hand, and a proper recovery.

The removal of wisdom teeth involves opening up the gum tissue over the tooth and taking out any bone that is covering the tooth. According to WebMD, your oral surgeon will separate the tissue connecting the tooth to the bone and then remove the tooth. Sometimes the dentist or oral surgeon will cut the tooth into smaller pieces to make it easier to remove. At the end of the procedure, you will either need a bone graft to replace some of the bone that was removed with the tooth, and you will more than likely need stitches, which will dissolve over time.

Now, that might sound insanely scary and a little painful, but be mindful of the fact that you’ll be either under anesthesia or a very happy patient on “laughing gas.” Either way, you will feel no pain during the procedure, and probably won’t feel much of anything for a few hours following the procedure.

A common fear among those getting their wisdom teeth removed in Gilbert is the amount of blood loss. Many people can’t stand the sight of blood, especially their own, which is why it’s important to follow the oral surgeon’s requirements for a quick recovery. Following your Gilbert oral surgeon’s recovery requirements will also help to ease some of the swelling.

While the process is fairly simple, and in most cases you’ll sleep through it anyways, the recovery process is all in your hands, and the hands of your friends and family. Have someone accompany you to the wisdom teeth removal appointment in order for them to be well aware of the recovery steps, and so that they can give you a ride home. In most cases, the recovery period lasts a few days. Some patients will recover in two days, some in a week. Be prepared to take it easy for as long as it takes.

Your Gilbert oral surgeon will provide you with gauze to be placed in the areas where your wisdom teeth were pulled. Bite gently on the gauze periodically and change them frequently. Your mouth will be very numb after the procedure, so be careful not to bite your cheeks or tongue. Prop up your head with pillows and pop in a movie or a good book. Don’t lie flat on your back, as this will increase the bleeding.

If swelling is a big concern, use ice packs on the outsides of your cheeks for the first 24 hours. Some patients experience little to no swelling at all, while others will experience more. Speak to your oral surgeon about how impacted your wisdom teeth are and how much swelling your should expect.

Do not smoke for at least, AT LEAST, 24 hours after surgery, eat soft foods such as pudding or soup, and avoid using a straw for a few days. Do your best to avoid irritating the area by touching it with your tongue or fingers.

While there are risks to any surgical procedure, there are very few risks to having your wisdom teeth removed and the positive outcome far outweighs the pain that you will endure if you don’t have the procedure done. If you’re still having fears about wisdom teeth extractions, talk to your Gilbert oral surgeon about those fears.



Source by Kandice L Day

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What To Expect From Tooth Extraction

Before tooth extraction has to be done, the patient is usually undergoing a thorough dental examination. Your dentist must know not just your full medical history but your dental history as well. It is very important to avoid any health risk issues like heart problems or any allergies from antibiotics or anesthetic.

Toothache is one of the most painful things you can experience. Once your tooth is severely damaged, the only solution it can get is tooth removal. You may visit your dentist for this procedure.

For simple tooth extraction

Most of us are afraid of extracting our teeth and our dentists are aware of this, so they will give you local anesthesia to numb the tooth and the gums before removing your tooth. Dental sedation is also recommended for patient with dental anxiety to feel more relaxed.

A simple tooth removal can be done with the extraction forceps without fracturing. To loosen the tooth, the dentist moves it back and forth from the socket. If the tooth is hard to loosen, the instrument called ‘elevator or ‘luxatar’ is usually used to break the periodontal tissues from the jawbone to where it is attached. The tooth can be pulled out with the forceps once it is already loosened.

For surgical tooth extraction

This procedure is usually done with following instances.

  • When teeth don’t have enough tooth structure left and is impossible for the extraction tools to grasp anything.
  • Teeth with curved roots
  • Impacted teeth – these are the teeth that have not erupted above the gum line.

In this method, the tooth has to be cut into small pieces to do the tooth extraction. After that, the tooth socket is carefully clean so that no puss or debris will be left.

Suturing or stitching is needed. Most of today’s dentists are using the dissolvable thread so you don’t need to come back to them for removal of stitches.

For multiple tooth extractions

In case several or most of your teeth must be removed, general anesthesia may be used. This is much stronger than the local one and it makes you sleep during the entire process.

Most of the patients prefer to have multiple tooth removal done at once to save time for dental visits and to experience the discomfort just once. Another reason is for preparation of full denture replacement.

Not everyone is capable of this procedure. Your medical condition must be perfect to endure the stress of multiple tooth extractions.

Blood clot formation from the tooth socket is very significant for healing process. Your dentist will requires you to bite down wet cotton gauze for about 30 minutes or more for blood clot formation. Be careful not to enter any food debris and other irritants to the empty tooth socket to protect it from bacteria and not to cause any infection.

Things to do after tooth extractions procedure

  • Don’t lie down – lying down immediately after the extraction may cause bleeding. Use extra pillows so you keep your head elevated.
  • Protect the extraction site – chew on the other side of mouth for at least 24 hours. Soft diet is necessary and you must avoid placing your finger into your wound just to check it out. Wash your hand thoroughly before changing the gauze.
  • Don’t smoke
  • When you brush your teeth, avoid the area near the extraction for 24 hours or until your wound is totally healed.
  • Don’t rinse at the first day. You can do gentle rinsing after second day using mild antiseptic rinses.
  • Avoid strenuous physical activities for the first 3 to 5 days for it may cause unnecessary bleeding.

Following your dentist’s instruction is the safe way for immediate tooth extraction healing. This is not a simple matter to be taken for granted for it may cause serious health problems when complications occurred.



Source by Eliza Tam

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Pros and Cons of Dental Implants

Dental implants may be fitted into the jaws over which artificial teeth may be fixed. These implants are made using artificial titanium. Dental implants are used to replace decayed tooth root. Dental implants have both advantages and drawbacks just as with other dental procedures. Before opting for the procedure you have to analyze the pros and cons carefully.

The Pros

Dental implants are cost effective because they can last a lifetime. They can also look and feel like your original teeth. They are also lot superior to traditional bridges or dentures. You can also benefit from better biting action. They can also fit perfectly and look striking. Through this method more than one tooth can be replaced easily. They can also offer good support for the dentures. They can be used to correct toothless jaw and make you look younger.

The Cons

The downside is that these implants are very expensive. In fact, they are more costly than partial or full dentures and fixed bridges. They may also not be covered by dental insurance policies. It can also be very time consuming to get this process done. It may involve more than one visit to the dentist. The surgery can also be painful and will lead to bruising and swelling to some extent. However these effects can differ from one person to another. Your over all health condition can also determine the amount of success with respect to this procedure. Those suffering from diseases like diabetes must consult with their doctor before opting for such procedures. There can also be breakage of implants that can cause mouth infection.

How to find low cost Dental Implants in Los Angeles



Source by Mary W Johnson