Dental Implant Procedure and Recovery

Many dental patients are concerned when they hear the words dental implants. These restorative devices should not be so intimidating. Prosthodontists use them to support dental health and preserve people’s abilities to chew, talk and otherwise enjoy life.

What Are Dental Implants?

History tells us that people have been using dental implants for thousands of years. Ancient Egyptians and Mayans apparently used bone and wood to create false teeth. George Washington used wooden teeth.

Thankfully, science has advanced so that we do not have to depend on these materials any more. Dental implants are typically made from titanium today. They are surgically inserted in the jaw to take the place of teeth and their roots. Additionally, implants do much more than simply sit in place of dental structures. They support the surrounding teeth as well. Implanted into the jaw, they support various other dental prosthetic devices, such as crowns, bridges and dentures.

Dental Implant Procedure

Dental patients may notice that there is a lot of preparation before an implant procedure. The oral surgeon must identify the exact location, form and structure of the jaw and mouth. For example, depending on the future location of the implant, he may need to identify the proximity of the sinus cavity or the inferior alveolar nerve canal in the jaw. Aside from the usual dental X-rays, CT scans of the area may be required as well. It is important to know the exact shape of the jaw and amount of bone that can support the implants in order to avoid complications but also to prepare an implant that will fit exactly in place.

Once the planning has been finished, the oral surgeon can begin the actual procedure. It is necessary to make some sort of incision into the gums over the place where the implant will be inserted.

The implant is set in place without any other permanent adornment. It must be given time to let natural bone grow over it and set it in place firmly. Then, a prosthodontist can place crowns or other prostheses over the implant.

Recovery from Dental Implant

There is a great deal of debate over the proper amount of recovery time required to let the implant heal properly before placing a prosthesis on it. The general practice is to allow anywhere from two to four months for healing before adding the stress of a prosthesis, or four to six months if bone grafting is involved.

In very selected cases, a temporary prosthesis can be inserted on the same day of implant placement, possible if certain clinical criteria are meant.

Implants generally have a high success rate, although this is dependent on the type of procedure needed and the skill of the surgeon making the dental implant. So choosing the right dental surgeon to carry out the procedure is very important.

Source by Rose T Teo


More About Services Provided By A General Dentist

The role of general dentists is to provide primary dental care for patients of all ages. They look after your entire family and overall dental health. Your oral health needs are met by the general dentist as they take care of the diagnosis, treatment and coordination of services.

However, in case, specialized dental care is needed, the dentist will refer you to specialists to ensure that you get the care that you need. Mostly general dentists work in government health services, higher education, military and research projects. All of them have years of experience and academic qualifications that ensure you get the highest dental services. The dentists are trained and educated specializing in different areas of dentistry. Some of the services that are provided to you and your family include:

– Dental implants and dentures

– Crowns and bridges

– Oral surgery

– Partial dentures

– Nutrition counseling

– Orthodontics

– Root canal therapy

– Sealants

– Teeth cleanings

– Gum disease treatment

– Crowns and bridges

– Cosmetic procedures

Usually functioning as family dentists and looking after oral dental care, the vast experience and services are a help. However, if you are looking for cosmetic dentistry, a general dentist will not be able to assist you. It is a separate specialization that requires precision and experience for proper functioning. But before you set an appointment with the cosmetic dentist, ensure that your insurance covers the costs. If you are looking for dental inlays and overlays, for teeth restoration, or improving your decayed teeth, consult a cosmetic dental surgeon.

These are applied to the chewing surfaces of the molars as they wear out faster. If you have decayed teeth, the dentist will remove the portions of damaged tooth and the rest will be prepared for the dental inlay or overlay. Additionally, a wax mold impression will be taken along with the bite to ensure the best fit. This impression is then used to create a plaster model which will be used to match the contours of the tooth.

The inlay fillings are used for restoring normal tooth structure while it is used for filling in small areas between the teeth. While the dental onlay are used on treating a larger area and is specially used when the chewing surfaces over a large area require to be safeguarded. However, both of these are made from composite resin or porcelain as they can withstand everyday grinding and chewing while matching the natural color of the teeth. Additionally, you can even get dental crowns made of alloys or metals. You must have seen people with gold or titanium dental crowns. As these are metal, they last long and can withstand wear and tear.

Only after the wax model is approved, the porcelain or alloy crowns are made. The second session is used for checking the fitting and is then cemented to ensure a proper bond. After that the final polish is done and you have got a beautiful smile again. If you have more concerns about the procedure or have queries, your general dentist will be able to help you.

Source by Linda True


Sugar and Dental Health

Most of us would consider our food choices unhealthy, not only in the sense that they interfere with the functionality of some of our most important organs, but also in that they plainly compromise our oral health. We live among people who love to indulge in soda, sweet foods, and bad habits like smoking. The effects of all this neglect are compounded, yielding problems like dental caries and gum disease. Eating right is really not that difficult and what you personally stand to gain from a little self-control far outweighs whatever sacrifices you may have to make to get there.

The most effective step you can take against combating oral diseases of any kind is to simply eliminate sweets from your diet. Any food or drink with sugar in it feeds the bacteria in your mouth, which processes this food by producing acid. This acid decomposes your tooth enamel, leaving your teeth prone to decay. Now, don’t think you can substitute diet cola for whatever type of soda you may be drinking now. This has acidic components that will compensate for the reduction in sugar. Stop drinking soda, eating cakes and cookies, and nibbling on caramel apples. Substitute these with vegetables or other alternatives. If you can’t eradicate sweets from your diet, at least attempt to reduce your weekly intake.

Proper dental hygiene and regular dental checkups are both important components to your overall oral health. Brush and floss daily. Remember not to brush too aggressively as this can wear down your tooth enamel. If you have trouble reaching certain areas of your mouth because you wear orthodontia, a dental water jet system is a good choice/ Be sure to attend your cleaning appointments regularly as to detect any decay early and thus prevent any future problems. As long as you take a proactive role in maintaining your dental health, you will be able to enjoy your teeth for many years to come.

Source by Theodore Michaels


Becoming a Dental Hygienist – An Introduction

Health careers are generally considered to be more stable jobs, and the dental hygienist profession is widely accepted to be one of the most recession-proof professions in America. If you’re interested in becoming a respected health professional with a recession-proof career, becoming a dental hygienist could be one of the best decisions you’ll make.

Dental hygienists are one of the fastest growing occupations in the US. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average hygienist earned $66,570 annually in 2008, and the field will enjoy a job growth of 36% by the year 2018. Members of the profession often work beside dentists in dental offices, and some have their own dental hygiene practices. In addition, many work on a part-time or flexible schedule basis. Clearly, the profession offers stability, higher than average income and flexibility.

The primary responsibility of a dental hygienist is to ensure the hygiene of patients’ teeth and gums by performing a wide variety of procedures, as well as educating them about teeth and gum hygiene and providing other preventive dental care. The procedures performed by a dental hygienist may include:

  • Cleaning plaque, stains, tartar and other residue buildup on teeth using rotary and ultrasonic devices
  • Diagnose dental health problems using radiological (x-ray) equipment and refer them to dentists for further treatment if necessary,
  • Apply cavity-preventing treatments such as fluorides and sealants,
  • Educate patients on various aspects of dental health and hygiene using charts, photos and models.

Now that we’ve covered the basic job responsibilities of a dental hygienist, it’s time to talk about the educational requirements and qualifications necessary to become one. In many states, entering the profession requires a degree from an accredited dental hygiene school (In addition, some states such as Florida may allow foreign-trained dentists to work as hygienists. This is an appealing career option for foreign-trained dentists, who otherwise can not obtain jobs as dentists in the US due to ADA regulations and restrictions on foreign-trained dentists.) Such training programs usually take two years to complete, and entrance requirements usually include a high school diploma and college entrance test scores. Specific entrance requirements vary highly between programs, and we recommend visiting the Web sites of various schools for more information.

As of 2010, there were 313 accredited entry-level dental hygiene education programs in the US. Most of these programs require successful completion of classes on general health-related science subjects such as anatomy, chemistry, histology, microbiology and nutrition; as well as classes specializing on dental health subjects such as periodontology (study of gum diseases), clinical dental hygiene, dental materials and dental radiology.

After successful completion of an accredited dental hygienist education program, dental hygienists must be licensed by the state where they would like to practice. Almost all US states require candidates to graduate from an accredited school and pass both a written and clinical examination. The written examination is administered by the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations of ADA (American Dental Association).

The clinical examinations are usually administered by regional and state agencies, and some states might require additional written examinations as well. You can find more information on the national and state examinations on our certification information pages.

We hope you find this brief introduction useful in your path to becoming a dental hygienist! My Web site, ( http://www.dental-hygienist-career.com ) contains much more information including information on dental hygiene education programs in each state, examination and education process as well as career opportunities.

Source by Tom DeLauder


Mini Dental Implants Vs Regular Dental Implants

Do you hide your smile because you have unsightly gaps between your front teeth? Or are some of your teeth badly damaged or decayed? If so, then dental implants may be the only permanent solution to your dental miseries.

Dental implants are fake dental roots, usually made of titanium (a metal that is well-tolerated by the human body), inserted into the jawbone to support a prosthetic tooth or bridge.

Implants can restore any number of teeth, from a single tooth to a full arch, helping you regain your smile, and enabling you to speak, eat and laugh again with comfort and confidence.

If you are seriously considering implants for your missing teeth there are two types, based on the diameter of the device – Traditional implants and Mini dental implants. Each type has its own size and diameter.

Traditional Implant Devices

Implants have long been used as a sure shot way to replace missing teeth over the last three decades. This type of implants is used to replace a lost or decayed tooth, multiple teeth or a bridge or full denture. It is also used to hold removable dentures in proper place. Endosteal (in the bone), Subperiosteal (in the bone) and Plate form are the four main types of implants commonly used in implant dentistry today.

In this type of teeth implantation a tiny screw is fixed on the jaw bone through a small incision in the gum tissue. After few weeks when the jawbone is fully healed and implant is fused to the bone, a crown will be loaded on the implant. The whole procedures results in a new, vibrant smile with the most natural-looking permanent prosthetic teeth that feel and work like your natural teeth.

Mini Dental Implants

Like traditional dental implants, mini dental implants are used to restore lost teeth. They are mainly used to replace front teeth, pre-molars, small teeth and teeth located in a narrow area.

This single-piece titanium screw has a head shaped like a ball on top. The head of this miniature titanium implant consists of a single rubber O-ring that allows it to connect into the socket of the denture or the prosthetic tooth.

The Real Difference between Regular and Mini Dental Implants

A mini implant is significantly thinner compared to a regular implant. The diameter of mini dental implants is generally between 1.8mm to 2.9mm compared to 4mm to 6mm for traditional ones. Being small in size, a MDI can be placed in areas where there is substantial bone loss.

A conventional implant is commonly composed of three parts- a titanium material screw, the abutment and the crown. MDIs, on the other hand, are narrow body, one-piece titanium appliances.

The regular screws are usually hollow in the middle, whereas the mini implant is one solid piece.

Unlike the traditional implants, only the ball-shaped portion of the mini implant sticks out of the gums.

Placing regular implants is an invasive, time consuming procedure. First the titanium screw or false root is inserted directly into the jawbone. After a healing period of several days, the root bonds to the bone. An abutment is fitted over the portion of the implant and a crown- the top most part of the restoration, is then added. The whole procedure is completed in several stages over the span of a few months. Mini implants, by contrast, are fixed by drilling a tiny pilot hole in the jaw bone, requiring no incisions. This minimally-invasive procedure is completed in a single stage in as little as 2 hours.

The cost involved in mini dental implants is much less when compared to regular implants. A mini dental implant can cost up to 60% less than a conventional one.

Source by Neelam Goswami


On Average, How Much Are Invisalign Braces?

Giving an average estimate for pricing on teeth alignment of any variety is tricky, costs can vary pretty widely depending on any number of different factors. The only true way to get a decent idea of what Invisalign braces, or any oral correction procedure is to pay a visit to the practitioners in your area that perform the procedure and get a quote.

Some things that may affect the overall price are: where you live; what the current condition of your teeth is; what, if any, preliminary or preoperational work has to be done before the procedure is done and what type of dental insurance you have. Let’s go over each of these things individually to see how each may affect the total price of your Invisalign braces.

Dental Insurance

The type of dental insurance you have, if you are lucky enough to have any, will most certainly have the largest effect on the out of pocket cost of your Invisalign Braces. With no dental plan, you would be responsible for paying the entire amount out of pocket – at the very least this will be a few thousand dollars – even if you shop around for the best deal.

Some insurance plans cover a set percentage of the cost of dental procedures up to forty, fifty or sixty percent – this could still leave you with a reasonable out of pocket expense, but saving fifty percent on a bill that large is much better than not saving anything at all.

Exception dental insurance will cover upwards of thirty-five hundred dollars in dental work, depending on where you live and how misaligned your teeth are this may be enough to cover the entire procedure or to leave you with very little out of pocket expense once the procedure is complete.

Where You Live

This factor could also have a big impact on the cost of getting your Invisalign braces. The cost of living in some areas of the country is much higher than the national average and in others it’s much lower than the average. If you live in New York, Los Angeles, Miami or Boston you can probably expect to pay quite a bit more for your Invisalign Braces than you would if you lived in Des Moines, Chattanooga or Charleston. Everything that you spend money on is affected by the area in which you live – houses, cars, food, clothing and even Invisalign braces.

How Bad your Teeth are

If there are other dental issues with your teeth that your dentist recommends that you get taken care of before getting Invisalign braces, it won’t necessarily change the cost of the actual braces, but it will add the associated costs of more office visits. If your teeth are severely crooked, you may require more clear retainers in the series to compensate for the alignment. Invisalign braces are made up of a series of clear, removable retainers that move the teeth little by little through wear, if you need more than the standard amount of retainers to properly align your teeth, the cost could go up considerably.

Invisalign braces start at around thirty-five hundred dollars; depending on the factors listed above – the price for your Invisalign braces could be substantially more than that. A reasonable estimate to use as an average would probably be in the neighborhood of five to six thousand dollars or more assuming that you live in an average area of the country and have reasonably healthy teeth that only need realignment – but the total could easily exceed seven or eight thousand dollars in the worst case scenario. Invisalign braces can cost around twenty to fifty percent more than traditional braces, but because they are invisible, removable and more comfortable they are quickly becoming the most popular choice for teeth realignment.

Source by Amy Nutt


Do Invisalign Braces Hurt?

Invisalign braces are a modern alternative to traditional metal braces. Made of medical grade plastic they are completely clear and are billed as an invisible alternative to braces. They are also removable which has made them particularly popular amongst adults.

One of the common concerns of people considering Invisalign braces is the possibility of pain during treatment. Traditional metal braces have long been associated with painful treatment, both through the pressure exerted during the movement of teeth, and through the rubbing of the metal against the cheeks and tongue. One method of dealing with this has been the use of waxes and gels to stop the pain. Invisalign braces are different from metal braces however. They are produced from a mould that the orthodontist or dentist takes of the patients teeth. From this mould a series of aligners is manufactured. These are made to fit exactly the shape of the patients teeth, effectively covering each tooth in a very fine layer of smooth clear plastic. Due to the smooth texture of this plastic and to the very close fit there should be no rubbing or chafing against the cheeks. Occasionally a patient can experience a very slight rough edge on the aligner but this can be quickly and simply smoothed away by the patient with a nail file.

Metal braces are normally tightened every 6 weeks. This means that in order to incorporate six weeks worth of movement significant changes are made at each tightening. This results in a lot of pressure upon the teeth causing considerable discomfort.

Invisalign braces are replaced for a new aligner approximately every 2 weeks, although some patients are on a weekly rotation. This means that each aligner is able to undertake a smaller movement and therefore put less pressure on the teeth. This means that although there may be some pressure at the start of each aligner it should not be enough to cause actual pain although it may cause some discomfort. This discomfort is easily dealt with with a simple over the counter painkiller.

Most Invisalign patients require buttons or attachments to be placed on some of their teeth. These are small blobs of tooth coloured substance that help the aligner to grip on teeth that are requiring more complex movements. Some patients find that these attachments feel a little uncomfortable against their cheeks whilst eating, although they cannot be felt when the aligners are in place. As aligners are required to be worn for a minimum of 22 hours a day this does not generally cause a significant problem. Any rough edges on the attachment can quickly be smoothed away by the dentist or orthodontist in their surgery.

The important factor to remember when considering Invisalign braces is that they should never cause pain. Patients may feel some pressure that may be a little uncomfortable but if actual pain is experienced it indicates that there is something wrong with the way treatment is progressing and the patient’s dentist or orthodontist should be consulted.

Source by Luke G Stafford


Comparison Between Invisalign Vs Braces In Terms Of Cost

Orthodontic treatment helps individuals who have misaligned teeth and overbite problems. Over the years, the traditional braces which employ the use of metal have always been the choice. But what has caught the attention of many people is Invisalign. This kind of braces makes use of aligners made out of plastic material and can be helpful in mild problems regarding the teeth.

The cost of Invisalign Vs braces is entirely different because of a lot of factors. Generally, you could say that Invisalign will cost you a lot of money; you still need to know the various factors which are causing it. One of the primary reasons why a lot of individuals make use of Invisalign is for aesthetic purposes. Not only can these be removed, they are also invisible in broad daylight. You can take them off if you are attending a party and then put them back later. This alternative is not present when you use metal braces considering that they are secured firmly with wires and brackets.

Furthermore, another factor which will affect the Invisalign cost is the expertise of the orthodontist. These are only provided in selected dental clinics and because of that a seasoned doctor will be required making it an expensive procedure when comparing Invisalign Vs braces. Another factor that will likely result to high Invisalign cost is associated with the motivation of the person who wants to use it. Since this kind of brace can be removable, there are individuals who tend to take advantage of such laxity which is uncalled for. They fail to wear Invisalign for the predetermined 12 to 14 hours. Tooth movement is a gradual process and there should be continual application of force so that tooth movement will take place. If the individuals will not wear aligners as frequently as they should, then during the next appointment with the dentist, most likely, the aligner that were prepared will not fit. Thus, the dentist will have to get new measurements again for the new fabrication of aligners. This in turn will increase the cost.

Selecting between Invisalign Vs braces can be a daunting task. You are required to think sensibly over each treatment and apply it to your best advantage. Moreover, your convenience and your financial budget should be your topmost priorities because these will have influence on the kind of brace you will be wearing. It would really be helpful to talk it out with your dentist as well as your insurance agent.

Source by Annie A. Smith


Types of Dental Bridges: Pros and Cons

Whether you have gaps between your teeth or you have lost a tooth due to decay, infection or accident, you can replace missing or gapped teeth with natural looking prosthetic device, called dental bridges.

Dental bridges are the latest and best solution for replacing teeth that are missing or that need to be removed. Fused between two porcelain crowns, a dental bridge not only helps you obtain a perfect and complete smile but also restores your ability to eat and look normal.

Gone are the days when people with the poor dental structure and unattractive smile did not have any solutions and they have to live with stained, chipped, misaligned or spaced teeth. Today, a wide variety of aesthetic dental treatments are available that can correct everything from minor flaws in the smile to tooth discoloration, missing or cracked teeth, and unevenly spaced teeth.

From implants, porcelain veneers and bridges to tooth-colored fillings, patients can choose from a plethora of dental solutions to restore the vitality of their smile and overall oral health.

What are Dental Bridges?

Dental Bridges are referred to as a false tooth or teeth (pontic) to create a beautiful, healthy and a more aesthetically pleasing smile. These prosthetics are used in cosmetic dentistry to “bridge” the gaps where a tooth or teeth are missing or removed.

Made of two caps, known as crowns, and an artificial tooth, a dental bridge is permanently fixed to abutment teeth that are on each side of the false tooth.

Over the last few years, this cosmetic dental appliance has undergone a transformation, thanks to cutting-edge dental technology, including the computerized x-rays and the revolutionary 3D imagery & CAD-CAM system.

Cosmetic dental experts now are able to quickly create accurate dental restorations, including abutments, full crowns, dental bars, implant bridges and inlays / onlays, that are stronger and has a more natural and pleasant appearance.


There are three main types of dental bridges:

Traditional bridges: Made of porcelain or porcelain fused to metal, these prosthetics are fixed and unlike removable partial dentures you cannot take them out of your mouth.

Cantilever bridges: This form of bridges is used when only one abutment tooth surrounds the open space.

Maryland bonded bridges: Also called a resin-bonded bridge, this bridge is primarily used for your front teeth. It is a good choice when the abutment teeth are healthy, strong and don’t have large fillings.


With latest advancements in dental technology and cosmetic dentistry, installing a bridge is a simple procedure now.

It is a time-saving procedure, requiring only two visits to the dentist.

Bridges are natural in appearance.

They help maintain your facial tone and prevent facial musculature changes.

If you maintain good oral hygiene, bridges can reduce your risk of gum disease and prevent the tooth from shifting, tilting, or drifting into the empty space.

They give you a healthy, beautiful, well-aligned smile as well as help correct bite issues and even improve your ability to speak properly.

Your chewing efficiency is increased as the forces in your bite are equally distributed after installation of bridges.

Bridges are less invasive and less expensive when compared to dental implants or any other restorative dental procedure.

Your fixed bridge should last as many as ten years or more, albeit it requires commitment to serious oral hygiene.


It is likely that your teeth become sensitive to extreme temperatures, hot and cold, for a few weeks after the treatment.

Acidic food may lead to build up of bacteria on your teeth and gums can become infected in the absence of proper oral hygiene.

Smoking may cause complications, as it harbors bacterial growth.

Poor oral hygiene can aggravate failure of dental bridges.

Cemented bridge may become loose or collapse.

A dental bridge requires removal of natural tooth structure from the two anchor teeth.

Source by Neelam Goswami


Dentistry The Past and The Present

7000 BC – The Bow Drill Era

Dentistry got its start in the Indus Valley of India and Pakistan region. These industrious would-be dentists were master beadmakers who used bow drills to cure tooth problems. This is also the first appearance of dental assistants, whose duties consisted of restraining the flailing arms and legs of patients during the undoubtedly excruciating procedures. Still, this obviously beat a life without teeth.

The First Known Dental Implant

The history of dental implants begins more than 1300 years ago with the ancient Mayans. Back in 600 AD, a young woman was missing some of her lower teeth. The same as any modern woman, she wanted her smile beautified. She received what is perhaps one of the world’s first dental implants. It was made from pieces of shell shaped to resemble teeth.

The Father of Modern Dentistry

In 1723, French surgeon Pierre Fauchard published The Surgeon Dentist, A Treatise on Teeth. He is considered the father of modern dentistry because his book was the first to describe a comprehensive system for caring for and treating the teeth.

Pierre Fauchard (1678 – March 22, 1761) was a significant French physician, credited as being the “father of modern dentistry”. He is widely known for his book, Le chirurgien dentiste, “The Surgeon Dentist” 1728, where he described the basic oral anatomy and function, signs and symptoms of oral pathology, operative methods for removing decay and restoring teeth, periodontal disease (pyorrhea), orthodontics, replacement of missing teeth, and tooth transplantation. His book is said to be the first complete scientific description of dentistry. Fauchard’s text was followed by others who continued to expand the knowledge of the dental profession throughout Europe.

1790 – The First Dental Foot Engine

The first dental foot engine was built by John Greenwood and one of George Washington’s dentists. It was made from an adapted foot-powered spinning wheel.

Dr. John Greenwood (1760-1819) was George Washington’s personal dentist and was responsible for designing Washington’s famous dentures, which were not wood but carved from hippopotamus tusk. He invented the first known “dental foot engine” in 1790.

He was the son of Isaac Greenwood, the first native-born American dentist.

A letter from John Greenwood to Lt. General George Washington on his denture charges, dated 1799, is in the A.D. Black History of Dentistry Collection at Northwestern University.

1790 was a big year for dentistry, as this was also the year the first specialized dental chair was invented. It was made from a wooden Windsor chair with a headrest attached.Simple and effective invention.

1840 – The First Dental School is Founded

Chapin Harris and Horace Hayden founded the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, the first school dedicated solely to dentistry. The college merged with the University of Maryland School of Dentistry in 1923, which still exists today.

1844 – Nitrous Hits the Scene

Connecticut dentist Horace Wells was the first discover that nitrous oxide can be used as anesthesia. After using it with success on several of his patients in private, he attempted to demonstrate its effects in public, but the demonstration was seen as failure because the patient cried out during surgery. In 1846 one of students, William Morton, would take credit for the discovery after a successful demonstration.


Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or sweet air, it is a chemical compound with the formula N2O. It is an oxide of nitrogen. At room temperature, it is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a slightly sweet odor and taste. Usually used in surgery and dentistry for its anesthetic and analgesic effects. It is known as “laughing gas” due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anesthetic. It is also used as an oxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen.

Nitrous oxide gives rise to NO (nitric oxide) on reaction with oxygen atoms, and this NO in turn reacts with ozone. As a result, it is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone. It is also a major greenhouse gas and air pollutant. Considered over a 100-year period, it has 298 times more impact ‘per unit weight’ (Global warming potential) than carbon dioxide.

The 20th Century

Dentistry has seen a great deal of innovation over the past 100 years. In 1903 Charles Land devised the porcelain jacket crown.

In 1905, Alfred Einhord, a German chemist, discovered Novacain.

Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is used primarily to reduce the pain of intramuscular injection of penicillin, and it was also used in dentistry. Owing to the ubiquity of the trade name Novocain, in some regions procaine is referred to generically as novocaine. It acts mainly by being a sodium channel blocker.

In 1938, the first tooth brush with synthetic nylon bristles hit the market.

In 1945, the water fluoridation era began when the cities of Newburgh, NY and Grand Rapid, MI decided to add fluoride to the public water supply. In 1950, the first fluoride toothpastes are marketed.

In 1951, a Swedish orthopedic surgeon named Per-Ingvar Brnemark came across the concept quite by accident, but a fortuitous accident it was.

Professor Brnemark and his research team were studying microscopic aspects of the bones’ healing process in lab at the University of Lund. During one of their experiments, a titanium metal cylinder was screwed into the thighbone of an animal test subject.

Upon further examination of the bone and metal cylinder, Professor Brnemark observed something surprising: the metal cylinder had fused with the bone.

Researchers came to realize,that Titanium was the only consistently successful material for dental implants. Before Dr. Brnemark’s work, other doctors had been toying with the idea of dental implants for years. A host of other metals, including silver and gold, had failed. Even human teeth (from donors) were tried.

In 1957, John Borden invented the first high speed electric hand drill.

In the 1960s, the first dental lasers are developed and used for soft tissue procedures.

The 1960s also saw the invention of the first electric toothbrush.

The 1990s marks the beginning of the era of cosmetic dentistry, with the increased popularity of veneers, bleaching, and dental implants.

Since then the implants didn’t changed much,they only became more popular.

Source by David O Orcea