Dental implants surgery can be categorized into two types, the endosteal surgery and the subperiosteal surgery. In the endosteal surgery. In the subperiosteal surgery, a dental implant is placed over the jaw bone and not into the jaw bone. The availability of jaw bone is an important factor in deciding which type of this surgery is suitable for the patient. Also, the previous medical history of the patient is also thoroughly checked before conducting the dental implant surgery. In cases of patients with previous history of heart ailments, the implantologist places the dental implant in the presence of a specialist of the heart in the operation room. Sometimes another preparatory surgery of bone grafting is also performed on the patient. This refers to the process of taking bone from one part of the body and adding it in the jaw bone where the implant to be placed. If for some reason, the bone grafting cannot be done with the patient’s bone, then the grafting is done by an artificial bone, a bone graft from a donor or a with a bone graft of an animal.
Depending on the type of bone grafts used, they are classified into three types, autogeneous grafts, allografts and xenografts. In autogeneous grafts, the patient’s own bone is taken to perform the surgery. Usually a graft from the hip bone is prepared because hip bones have a lot of marrow, which aid in the formation of new bones. The allograft is a bone graft prepared from bone donated by a donor. Three types of allographs are used in periodontal surgery. They are frozen fresh allografts, freeze dried bone allografts (FDBA) and Demineralized freeze dried bone allografts. A xenograph is a bone graft from another species, usually a cow. The bovine bone undergoes medical procedure to make it sterile and bio-compatible. A patient may or may not need bone grafting. Bone grafting is a preparatory surgical procedure for this surgery and it may or may not be needed by the patient. After the bone grafting, the jaw is let to heal upto nine months.
The endosteal procedure can be divided into three distinct phases. The first phase is when an incision is made into the gum and a titanium metal dental implant is screwed onto the jaw bone. After placing the dental implant the incision is closed and the titanium metal is let to osseointegrate with the jaw bone. This is a vital point in the surgery as the implantologist can continue with the surgery process only after the titanium metal has been accepted by the body. The metal suffers rejection in about 5 percent of the dental implants patients. The second phase of the endosteal dental implants surgery consists of placing an abutment over the dental implant titanium pin. The abutment is twisted into the implant and again the jaw is allowed to heal and osseointegration to set in. Once the healing period is over, finally the customized prosthetic tooth is placed onto the dental implant.